Survival Mode is the game mode in Minecraft in which the goal is to survive or be killed/incinerated/splattered on the ground. The player must collect resources, build homes, collect treasures and defeat mobs.
In your inventory (opened by pressing the E key), the player is allowed to craft. Crafting is a certain process in Minecrat where the player can produce tools or weapons like a sword by combining different raw materials in a specific position. You can also craft larger items by crafting a crafting table. Sometimes called the crafting bench or workbench, the crafting table lets you craft bigger things.
There are 5 different modes for survival mode, Peaceful (no HOSTILE mobs can spawn), Easy, Normal, and Hard.
In survival mode, unlike creative mode, the health, hunger, and experience bars are shown. The health bar (the red hearts) is an indicator of how much health you have. If all the hearts turn grey, you die. The hunger bar (the bar of chicken legs) is a bar that shows how hungry you are. You can regain hunger by eating things like porkchops, carrots, and bread. When your hunger bar is full, you start to regenerate health. You can also regenerate health by drinking a Health Regeneration potion. Your experience bar (the green/gray bar above your hotslots) indicates how much experience you've gained. You get experience from killing mobs, mining ores, and smelting things. The more experience you have, the higher levels of enchantment you can obtain on items.
Enchanting is something you do with an enchanting table, and sometimes an anvil, if you're using an enchanted book. The higher levels you have, the higher levels of enchantment you can have on items. When you enchant things, you get enchantments like Sharpness, Knockback, Silk Touch, and more. You used to be able to enchant only tools and armour, but now you can enchant almost anything with the anvil and the enchanting books. Heck, you can even enchant dirt!